Physiotherapy for osteochondrosis, depending on the patient's condition, is also used in combination with drug therapy and independently. For osteochondrosis, the following types of physiotherapy are used: Laser therapy, Detensor therapy, Electrotherapy, Shockwave therapy, Magnetotherapy, Mud and balneotherapy, Ultrasound therapy, Ultraviolet radiation (UFO). After successful relief of exacerbation, massage and physiotherapy exercises appear.
UFO:UVA produces vitamin D in the skin, which promotes the absorption of calcium. The method is performed using irradiators with bactericidal, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
Ultrasound therapy and phonophoresis:during ultrasound therapy, the body is exposed to high-frequency sounds (20 kHz or higher). Due to its effect, the method relieves pains of different localizations. This method is combined with the introduction of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs (ultrophorophoresis) to improve their penetration into the affected tissues.
Shockwave therapy:the method consists of transmitting an acoustic wave to a painful area of the body. This type: eliminates pain, improves microcirculation, improves metabolism.
Detentor therapy:the method consists in stretching the spine based on the patient’s body weight.
Laser therapy:the method uses healing helium-neon lasers. Due to the activation of bioelectrical processes in the tissues of the nervous system, laser therapy has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Laser radiation is performed along inflamed spinal roots. In osteochondrosis, the effect on the paravertebral zones of the affected spine is applied.
Electrotherapy:Electrotherapy affects the body in many ways: it eliminates pain and discomfort, it improves the nutrition and trophism of the affected tissues. Pulse currents have a very effective therapeutic effect. Their mechanism of action on the body is determined by the effect on nerve receptors. Low-frequency pulses contribute to the extinction of acute pain and are prescribed as first aid in severe pain syndrome. The following types of currents are used: diadynamic therapy (DDT), amplipulse therapy (SMT), interference therapy, transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS), UHF electric field.
Magnetic therapy:Physiotherapy for osteochondrosis involves the use of magnetotherapy, which has a decongestant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic effect. The inducers are placed on the affected spine and limbs.
Balneotherapy and mud therapy:balneotherapy for osteochondrosis consists of the treatment and rehabilitation of mineral waters (local and general baths, pools, showers). During the process, the minerals penetrate the skin and act on receptors and nerve centers.
When treated with mud, the effect on the body is due to the temperature and the chemical composition of the medicinal mud. The sludge is used in the form of applications.
Balneotherapy stimulates metabolism, improves blood circulation and relieves inflammation and pain.
Combined Physiotherapy Methods: Combined physiotherapy methods are most commonly prescribed to treat osteochondrosis. For example, in severe pain, diadynamic therapy and electrophoresis (diadynamophoresis) using novocaine are used. The acupuncture laser piercing method is used for the one-step effect of biologically active points. It is designed to activate points with acupuncture needles and laser radiation.
Mud therapy is often used with electrotherapy (electrophoresis with sludge solution, inductothermic sludge, galvanic sludge therapy).
All joint diseases can be divided into two main groups - joint lesions due to metabolic disorders and arthritis. Of course, in each case, the joint treatment is performed according to your own special program.
Joint treatment,whether it is arthritis, arthrosis, rheumatism or any other disease, it must necessarily be complex and the main task to be addressed by treatment is to eliminate the cause of the disease and consequently the painful symptoms.
The goal of treatment with modern techniques is to eliminate or minimize signs of pain, local or general inflammation, and to restore the affected joints. Complex treatment usually begins with drug therapy.
The patient is prescribed painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, medications that help restore articular cartilage, strengthen the immune system. Joint treatment at this stage can relieve the symptoms of pain. It often involves the intra-articular administration of drugs to deliver the desired concentration of therapeutic agent directly to the patient's joint cavity. This increases the effectiveness of medication.
Furthermore, when the main symptoms of the acute stage are safely eliminated, the treatment continues with the help of physiotherapy procedures, exercise exercises, massage complex. In particular, the treatment of joints with physiotherapy methods has become very widely used today.
Pulse currents (DDT, SMT), magnetotherapy, EHF therapy, laser therapy, electrophoresis with medicinal substances, ultrasound and phonophoresis are used. When exacerbation subsides, balneotherapy (different types of baths) and mud therapy are linked. They prescribe physiotherapy and massage.
Back pain treatment
There are several reasons for these pains. First, there may be excruciating pain due to herniation (protrusion) of the intervertebral disc, osteochondrosis, and pathology of the nervous system. Most often, back pain occurs in people who have been in the same situation for a long time.
And yet the most common reason is a lack of physical activity! This reduces the blood flow to the ligaments, joints and intervertebral discs, causing the cartilage that makes them up to break. All diseases of the spine are caused by a weakening of the ligament device. When pain occurs, see a doctor immediately, who will determine the cause, make a correct diagnosis, and prescribe treatment.
To reduce the risk of back pain, you need to exercise more, pay attention to your weight, and exercise at least minimally (15 minutes a day is enough).
Proper nutrition is also very important - it is one of the keys to good health and longevity, and the spine needs protein to maintain elasticity and calcium strength. Calcium is found in large amounts in hard cheese, liver, nuts, cottage cheese, eggs and protein in meat and dairy products. Spinal bones and ligaments also need micronutrients: phosphorus (bran, peas, fish are high), magnesium and manganese (found in sea fish, onions, potatoes), and fatty acids are nuts, fatty sea fish and olive oil.
When your back pain gets worse, treatment starts with medications - usually painkillers, diuretics, and medications that relieve muscle cramps. However, there are no drugs without side effects, they are only used for a limited time and, most importantly, they do not eliminate the cause of the back pain and do not prevent the disease from returning. During the acute period, treatment methods such as adhesion and wearing collars and corsets are also used, which allows the patient’s spine to be relaxed.
In addition to emergency medicine - drugs to relieve muscle cramps and pain, the most important treatment for osteochondrosis is physiotherapy, which helps reduce pain during the acute period of the disease, improves blood circulation to tissues, prevents malnutrition of ligaments, muscles and joints. and prevents movement disorders.
Modern physiotherapy is a branch of medicine with a huge arsenal of treatment tools; they distinguish two major blocks in it - massage therapy and electrotherapy. Therapeutic massage is one of the most effective methods for treating osteochondrosis and back pain as it improves blood circulation in deep tissues and removes muscle blocks ("clamps") that are the main causes of severe pain.
One of the most effective methods of electrotherapy is drug electrophoresis - it is a means of targeted delivery of drugs to a sick organ that improves the blood supply to the tissues.
Pulse currents - DDT, SMT - have a pronounced analgesic, antispasmodic and trophic effect. A laser, a magnetic laser, is also used to treat back pain. This method allows you to quickly relieve the swelling associated with inflammation and, accordingly, the pain in edematous and compressed tissues.
Magnetotherapy is applied in the form of permanent or alternating magnetic fields, which can also quickly stop swelling and pain.
D’arsonval currents are effective - these are "ozonated" currents that are used to relieve painful muscle cramps, high-frequency ultrasonic vibrations that eliminate inflammation and help dissolve scars, increasing tissue elasticity.
Physiotherapy plays a special role in physiotherapy. Its importance is often underestimated, and after all, it is impossible to cure back pain and prevent recurrence of osteochondrosis without a full-fledged muscle bandage.
Physiotherapy is especially important in trauma and the postoperative period. Its use helps prevent the recurrence of back pain that occurs due to so-called "motor stereotypes. "For example, an office worker who spends his entire working day sitting at a computer, or a salesman who has the heaviest load on his feet. Conventional health-enhancing gymnastics, yoga, pilates, and other types of exercises can also become a very effective method of combating "motor automatisms. "
Treatment of neck pain
Pain can be caused by a variety of causes, from muscle cramps to disc herniation of the cervical spine. Once neck pain appears (due to a sharp headache, an uncomfortable posture during sleep), it will probably go away on its own in a few days.
To reduce the pain, you only need to reduce the static load on the neck muscles (do not keep your head tilted for a long time), do not engage in excessive physical exertion, do not perform sudden neck movements.
If neck pain is constant or frequent, with headache, numbness of the upper extremities, a full examination should be performed.
Physiotherapy for neck pain is aimed at relieving pain syndrome, improving blood circulation and microcirculation in the affected segment, providing anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effects, eliminating metabolic and dystrophic disorders, and reducing movement disorders.
Physical factors are used during inpatient and outpatient care, after the patient is discharged from hospital, and during early postoperative rehabilitation. In the acute period: after 4-5 days (as the severity of the process decreases) laser therapy, pulse currents (SMT, DDT, interference currents), magnetotherapy, segmental zone UFO, darsonvalization of the cervical collar zone, spinal and head occipital region, materialsprescribes a local anesthetic, ganglion-blocking effect on pain zones.
In the subacute period: drug phonophoresis, magnetotherapy, drug electrophoresis, microwave electromagnetic fields (SMV, UHF), laser therapy.
In the remission phase: heat therapy is involved, including ozokerite and mud therapy in the neck-collar zone, balneotherapy (iodine-bromine, turpentine baths, laurel baths, bischofite baths), underwater shower massage, therapeutic massage.
Treatment of low back pain
The feeling of pain appears in the lower back due to an imbalance in the muscle-tape device. In this case, microtraumatization of the soft tissues occurs, resulting in the release of chemical irritants (pain mediators). They cause muscle cramps and back pain.
The origin of lumbodynia is mainly associated with osteochondrosis, which is localized in the lumbar region. Lumbodynia is characterized by low back pain with moderate or traumatic factors of lumbodynia: physical fatigue, systematic, or excessive physical exertion; sharp movements; permanent work in a "non-physiological" or prolonged awkward situation; bruising of the lower back, hypothermia, colds, etc.
The low back pain treatment program includes the following main points:
- Calm down for eight to ten days. However, the bed should be flat and solid. "Resting" on such a surface allows the back muscles to relax.
- Medical treatment for lumbago includes the use of sedatives and painkillers, as well as the use of novocaine blockers (with severe pain).
Among the physiotherapy methods, you can use electrophoresis of analgesics, pulse currents, ultraviolet radiation of segmental zones. During the acute period, the patient may prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets, injections, suppositories or ointments to relieve muscle cramps. Warming creams should only be used during the rehabilitation period (third day of exacerbation). In the acute period, they can cause swelling and increase pain.
- After the resolution of the acute pain, the lumbago treatment is continued with the help of exercise, massage and hand therapy.
The main task at this stage is to strengthen the muscle ligament and reduce the compression of the nerve roots. Special exercises for lumbago help to normalize metabolism, improve blood circulation and nutrition of intervertebral discs, relieve muscle tension, increase intervertebral space and relieve the spine.
In addition, acupuncture, hydromassage, mineral baths, mud therapy, and other physiotherapy are prescribed during the remission phase (see Treatment of Back Pain). Due to this, blood circulation is improved, anti-inflammatory and absorbed effects can be achieved.
Physiotherapy (from Greek physics - nature and therapy) is a branch of medicine that studies the healing properties of physical factors and develops methods for their use for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. In modern physiotherapy, magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fields of low, high, ultrasonic and ultrasonic frequencies, artificial light radiation (from infrared to ultraviolet and monochromatic coherence), mechanical vibrations (from infrasonic to ultrasound), etc. are used.
Throughout its evolution, physical factors have affected humans, so physiotherapy procedures have a greater physiological effect on the body than many drugs.
Physiotherapy can be used both on its own and in combination with drug therapy, manual therapy, massage, and physiotherapy exercises. The variety of factors and techniques used in physiotherapy determines the possibilities of individual impact on the body and targeted influence of the pathological process without negative side effects.
The application of physiotherapy is possible in almost all fields of medicine: otolaryngology, gastroenterology, gynecology, urology, pulmonology, orthopedics and traumatology, neurology, surgery, cardiology and others.
There is a fairly wide range of physiotherapy treatments, namely mud therapy, hydrotherapy (various mineral and aromatic baths, underwater shower massage), magnetotherapy, laser therapy, various currents (galvanic, pulse, high frequency), electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic waves, UF, , halotherapy, vibration traction devices, physiotherapy, staff of trained masseurs.
Therapeutic methods of acupuncture and electrical stimulation of various neurological diseases are also performed at the Department of Physical Therapy. All physiotherapy treatment is prescribed by the physiotherapist of the department, taking into account the disease and the general condition of the patient.
Medical rehabilitation is a complex of therapeutic and prophylactic measures aimed at restoring the patient’s abilities lost after various illnesses as much as possible.
Rehabilitation also aims to restore the patient's muscle strength as well as prevent recurrence or complications. Today, medical rehabilitation is not just about being discharged from a hospital or prescribing a physiotherapy course at the end of an inpatient period.
Rehabilitation is a complex of activities that involve the participation of physicians from different fields - physiotherapists, massage therapists, psychologists, speech therapists and others. As a result, complex rehabilitation allows the patient to fully and not partially recover. The success of treatment depends on both the correct diagnosis and the optimally selected and performed treatment, as well as the correct and timely rehabilitation of the patient.
Rehabilitation has a sole purpose - to restore the patient as much as possible to the lost functions, based on the consequences of the injury or illness and the treatment given.
Depending on the area of application, rehabilitation can be: Orthopedic - performed after injuries and surgeries after musculoskeletal disorders, fractures, spinal disorders and postural disorders. Neurological and neurosurgical interventions are one of the most serious types of rehabilitation, as most professionals are involved in their implementation - neurologists, physiotherapists, massage therapists, psychologists and psychiatrists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, and so on.
This rehabilitation is required after nervous system (brain, spinal cord) injuries and surgeries, peripheral nervous system diseases (nerve bundles), stroke, paresis and paralysis. Cardiological rehabilitation - rehabilitation after an acute heart attack with cardiovascular disease.
The goal of rehabilitation is the rapid regeneration of muscles, with their atrophy involving prolonged physical inactivity, the restoration of limb strength and tone, the restoration of the full range of motion of joints after immobilization (after fractures), in order to accelerate regeneration. improves organ and bone tissue trophism, increases mobility with abdominal adhesions after abdominal surgery, increases patient overall tone and improves psychoemotional state, relieves pain and swelling after joint injuries, restores physical activity after stroke, paralyzes after strokeparalysis and the musculoskeletal system associated with diseases and injuries in the postoperative period in postoperative patients (after injuries, fractures, bruises, and sprains).
It is worth noting that the rehabilitation process itself is based on stimulating the patient’s own abilities under external influence. Physical exercises, modern equipment help stimulate local and general immunity, improve tissue repair processes, restore blood and lymph circulation.
Methods of medical rehabilitation include the following methods: physiotherapy, massage, kinesitherapy, physiotherapy, hand therapy, electrostimulation (consisting of improving the conduction of nerve impulses to skeletal muscles), psychological assistance, speech therapy.
It should be noted that one of the key points of rehabilitation is the physiotherapy method, which aims to restore lost functions and stimulate patient movement, accelerating reparative processes in tissues and organs, especially in the locomotor system, nervous system and circulatory system. .
One of the advantages of physiotherapy methods is that they do not use drugs, which means that there is no risk of allergic reactions and side effects, drug dependence does not develop, and the treatment methods used are generally non-invasive.
The correctly chosen complex of the rehabilitation program helps the patient to recover as quickly as possible after an illness, injury or surgery, restores a sense of freedom of movement and the ability to communicate without restriction with the people around him.